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Welcome to NurseHub’s lesson on Inferring Logical Conclusions from a Reading Selection. This lesson will help you to prepare for this skill on your Reading Comprehension exam.

Potential Benefits of the Placebo Effect

On a simple level, a placebo is classified as anything that may come across as a “real” medical treatment, despite the fact that it does not contain an active substance that can have an impact on one’s health. In most cases, a placebo is a simple sugar pill, which is given to participants in a control group in medical studies. Consequently, the “placebo effect” is either a negative or positive response one has to a placebo. When negative cases occur, people may experience adverse reactions such as hives or difficulty breathing. In positive cases, however, symptoms may improve despite the fact that the patient did not take any medicine. Based on recent studies, doctors posit that the latter situation could actually be as powerful as taking medicine, especially when it comes to pain management.

Reinventing the Wheel

Career aptitude tests were quite popular starting from the 1960s and were often given to high school students in the hopes of helping them hone in on their various skill sets. Although the results of these exams may not have always been accurate, they at least inspired young adults to start thinking of their future careers. These days, psychologists assert that the key to discovering children’s future careers is likely to be found in what they do during their free time, or their hobbies. If this is indeed the case, scientists believe that young children have the power (and mental capacity) to invent the most innovative products to date. After all, some of the most famous inventions have been crafted by the minds of children.

The history of the wheel, arguably the most important invention in history, has been debated for centuries. Current evidence suggests that wheels were invented around 3500 B.C in Mesopotamia, to serve as a tool for potters specializing in making ceramic. However, anthropologists from the University of Victoria in Canada have developed a theory that could change the way the wheel is described in history books for years to come. They postulate that while the wheel seems to have been invented in 3500 B.C, small-scale prototypes for the same invention date back 6,000 years, all the way to 3000 B.C. Even more surprising, the scientists leading the study believe the prototypes were designs for children’s toys.

The evidence of the ancient blueprint was discovered in what is now Ukraine but dates back to the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture of Eastern Europe. Its specific details include small animals that appear to pull a wagon on a set of wheels. Surprisingly, the design resembles a classic children’s toy that was discovered after 3500 B.C. Given this finding, it is likely that Trypillian craftsmen created the design for the toy and relied on feedback from children before devoting limited resources to its production. Thus, it is probable that the blueprints resulted in the production of at least a few miniature toys, which included two wheels, a wagon, and an animal figurine. If researchers are able to verify these events, the credit for the invention of the wheel could be attributed to these unknown craftsmen and their young product testers.

Due to this astonishing discovery, anthropologists have started revisiting past research studies and discoveries involving the prehistoric time period. In fact, a research team from Australia’s Griffith University has recently claimed that what were once considered to be “ritualistic tools” from a small Italian province dating back 4,000 years could actually be toys belonging to a little girl. Objects in the study included a set of miniature pots and a small, bronze head belonging to a doll. After a closer inspection and understanding of the time period, it is speculated that these items would have been appropriate for a small female child. Although no one wants to “reinvent the wheel” when it comes to history, taking a closer look at ancient items may lead to extraordinary information.